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Menstrual abnormalities: causes, diagnosis, and treatments

Menstrual abnormalities: causes, diagnosis, and treatments

Menstrual cycles differ from woman to woman. Many causes come into play when it comes to menstrual cycle abnormalities. Menstrual anomalies are among the most common cause of gynecological consultations with a global prevalence of 30-70% in women of childbearing age. This short article will briefly discuss the common causes, the associated symptoms, what diagnostic tools are used, and how to treat them.

Constipation - everything you need to know

Constipation - everything you need to know

Research has shown that at any point in time depending on the definition used (self-diagnosis or functional diagnosis), constipation affects between 1 in 6 to 1 in 10 people globally. Constipation most commonly occurs when stool movements are too slow within the colon and thus cannot be eliminated via the rectum resulting in hardening of the stools.

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC), like Crohn's disease, is a chronic condition in which our immune cells target cells of our digestive tract. Unlike Crohn’s which affects the entire digestive tract (mouth to anus), UC begins in the rectum (connecting segment of the large intestine to the anus) and may affect the entire colon (large intestine). UC affects 0.005-0.5% of individuals per year.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease

Crohn's also known as regional enteritis, presents as an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resulting in chronic inflammation from mouth to anus. The disease progresses in "patches" meaning the areas of inflammation aren't continuous. Crohn's affects approximately 0.1-0.3% of the population. The exact cause of the illness is unknown, but several factors such as heredity and immune activation by a bacterium or virus have been proposed in the development of IBD.

Diarrhea

Diarrhea

Diarrhea is defined as passing three or more loose or watery stools a day. It isn’t something patients like to discuss, much less have because of the accompanying consequences which impede their quality of life (bloating, gassy, and urgency of stool passage).

Celiac disease

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is known by many names such as gluten sensitivity enteropathy, celiac sprue, and nontropical sprue. This chronic illness presents as an auto-immune reaction in which our immune cells attack tissues of the small intestine when we consume gluten thus, resulting in poor nutrient absorption. Worldwide prevalence based on blood tests is 1.4% while 0.7% is based on biopsy. The disease has been associated with heredity, certain genetic mutations predispose patients to develop the illness.

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