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Overview of pelvic inflammatory disease

Overview of pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an inflammatory process of the reproductive organs in women. PID most commonly results from bacterial infections acquired during intercourse, mainly chlamydia, and gonorrhea. At other times, it can result from bacteria entering the uterus during instances when the cervical barrier is disturbed (i.e., after abortion, miscarriage, or childbirth). The disease results from what we call an "ascending" infection thus spreading from the lower genitalia (i.e., vagina) to the upper genitalia (i.e., Uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries).

Overview of cystitis

Overview of cystitis

Cystitis is the term used to describe bladder inflammation. The main cause of bladder inflammation is a bacterial infection. The following can be classified as the following: simple urinary tract infection (UTI) which occurs in healthy men and non-pregnant women; or complicated UTI which is associated with risk (i.e., antibiotic failure). Cystitis can also be induced by non-infectious factors (i.e., medication).

Menstrual abnormalities: causes, diagnosis, and treatments

Menstrual abnormalities: causes, diagnosis, and treatments

Menstrual cycles differ from woman to woman. Many causes come into play when it comes to menstrual cycle abnormalities. Menstrual anomalies are among the most common cause of gynecological consultations with a global prevalence of 30-70% in women of childbearing age. This short article will briefly discuss the common causes, the associated symptoms, what diagnostic tools are used, and how to treat them.

Constipation - everything you need to know

Constipation - everything you need to know

Research has shown that at any point in time depending on the definition used (self-diagnosis or functional diagnosis), constipation affects between 1 in 6 to 1 in 10 people globally. Constipation most commonly occurs when stool movements are too slow within the colon and thus cannot be eliminated via the rectum resulting in hardening of the stools.

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